Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes.
If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may be aware that your memory or mental function has "slipped." Your family and close friends also may notice a change. But generally these changes aren't severe enough to significantly interfere with your day-to-day life and usual activities.
Mild cognitive impairment may increase your risk of later progressing to dementia, caused by Alzheimer's disease or other neurological conditions. But some people with mild cognitive impairment never get worse, and a few eventually get better.
Current evidence indicates that MCI often, but not always, arises from a lesser degree of the same types of brain changes seen in Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia. Some of these changes have been identified in autopsy studies of people with MCI. These changes include:
Brain-imaging studies show that the following changes may be associated with MCI:
Acquired Brain Injury
Acquired Brain Injury, (ABI), results from damage to the brain caused by strokes, tumors, anoxia, hypoxia, toxins, degenerative diseases, near drowning and/or other conditions not necessarily caused by an external force.
Anoxic Brain Injury occurs when the brain does not receive any oxygen. Cells in the brain need oxygen to survive and function.
Types of Anoxic Brain Injury
>> Anoxic Anoxia- Brain injury from no oxygen supplied to the brain
>> Anemic Anoxia- Brain injury from blood that does not carry enough oxygen
>> Toxic Anoxia- Brain injury from toxins or metabolites that block oxygen in the blood from being used Zasler, N. Brain Injury Source, Volume 3, Issue 3, Ask the Doctor
A Hypoxic Brain Injury results when the brain receives some, but not enough oxygen.
Types of Hypoxic Brain Injury
Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury, also called Stagnant Hypoxia or Ischemic Insult- Brain injury occurs because of a lack of blood flow to the brain because of a critical reduction in blood flow or blood pressure.
What is a Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI?
The Center for Disease Control defines a traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury (also known as an open head injury).
Concussion (Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI)
Even a concussion can cause substantial difficulties or impairments that can last a lifetime. Whiplash can result in the same difficulties as head injury. Such impairments can be helped by rehabilitation, however many individuals are released from treatment without referrals to brain injury rehabilitation, or guidance of any sort.
Contusion (Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI)
Coup-Contrecoup (Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI)
Diffuse Axonal (Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI)
Penetration / Open (Traumatic Brain Injury - TBI)
Penetrating injury to the brain occurs from the impact of a bullet, knife or other sharp object that forces hair, skin, bones and fragments from the object into the brain.
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